Recent work examines the market structure/racial earnings relationship for union and nonunion workers and finds that standardized union earnings protect black workers from market structure–driven earnings discrimination. This study examines the market structure/racial earnings relationship for low and mid-level managers in high- and low-union density industries. Our findings indicate that there is less market structure–driven discrimination of managers in highly unionized industries. We suggest that there is a spillover effect of reduced market structure–driven discrimination of managers in highly unionized industries that stems from standardized, more racially equitable wages of union workers.
Agesa, Jacqueline, and Richard U. Agesa. “Market structure-driven discrimination and the earnings of subordinate managers: An analysis by union density.” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Winter 2007-2008): pp. 205-225.