Date of Award


Degree Name

Biological Sciences


College of Science

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

F. Robin O’Keefe

Second Advisor

Paul Constantino

Third Advisor

Suzanne Strait

Fourth Advisor

Nicholas Freidin


Human skeletal analysis is a sensitive subject in North America. Laws and regulations make it difficult to use remains to characterize native populations. Recent technologies like three-dimensional (3D) scanning and 3D printing have the potential to solve this dilemma. I assessed this methodology by comparing processing time, accuracy and costs of a medical computer tomography (CT) scanners and an Artec Eva portable 3D surface scanner. Using both methodologies I digitized one individual uncovered during an archaeological excavation in Cabell County, West Virginia. Replicas were created on a ZPrinter 250 3D printer. I hypothesized that the Artec Eva will create digital replicas with < 5% error based on Buikstra & Ubelaker standard osteometric measurements. This was tested by comparison of measurements from the material and CT data. I also hypothesized that the ZPrinter will create replicas of < 5% error. Results show that larger bones recorded by the Artec Eva have < 5% error compared to the original specimen, while small, detailed images have > 5% error. CT images yielded < 5% error. The ZPrinter also yielded


Bones -- Imaging.

Three-dimensional printing -- Industrial applications.