We have demonstrated a simple and versatile method for generating a continuously graded, bonelike calcium phosphate coating on a nonwoven mat of electrospun nanofibers. A linear gradient in calcium phosphate content could be achieved across the surface of the nanofiber mat. The gradient had functional consequences with regard to stiffness and biological activity. Specifically, the gradient in mineral content resulted in a gradient in the stiffness of the scaffold and further influenced the activity of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3 cells. This new class of nanofiberbased scaffolds can potentially be employed for repairing the tendon-to-bone insertion site via a tissue engineering approach.
Nanofiber Scaffolds with Gradations in Mineral Content for Mimicking the Tendon-to-Bone Insertion Site Xiaoran Li, Jingwei Xie, Justin Lipner, Xiaoyan Yuan, Stavros Thomopoulos, and Younan Xia Nano Letters 2009 9 (7), 2763-2768.