On-chip cellular force sensors are fabricated from cantilever poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) filaments that visibly deflect under forces exerted at individual pseudopod-filament adhesive contacts. The shape of the deflected filaments and their ∼3 nN/μm spring constants are predicted by cantilever rod theory. Pulling forces exerted by Dictyostelium discoideumcells at these contacts are observed to reach ∼20 nN without breaking the contact.
Paneru G, Thapa P S, McBride S P, Nichols D M, Law B M and Flanders B N 2011 Forces at individual pseudopod-filament adhesive contacts. Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 093702