Title

Usefulness of Clopidogrel to Protect Against Diabetes-Induced Vascular Damage

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

Spring 4-1-2010

Abstract

Clopidogrel enhances the levels of endothelial nitric oxide and prostacyclin in tissue culture. We have previously described a marked increase in circulating endothelial cells (CECs), an ex vivo indicator of vascular injury, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that clopidogrel treatment would result in a decrease in CEC number and increased activity of endothelial progenitor cell recruitment signaling pathways in diabetic patients. CECs were isolated from the peripheral blood of 9 patients with type 2 diabetes using anti-CD146-coated Dynabeads. The cells were stained with acridine orange and counted by fluorescence microscopy. Endothelial progenitor cells were isolated in a similar fashion using anti-CD34 and anti-CD133 and assayed for expression of phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate kinase. The patients were then treated with clopidogrel 75 mg/day for 30 days, after which repeat blood specimens were analyzed. As previously observed, diabetic patients had an elevated number of CECs (mean 79 ± 15 cells/ml peripheral blood), which was reduced by clopidogrel treatment (mean 10 ± 4 cells/ml; p <0.001). This was associated with a significant increase in the expression of both phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate kinase (p ≤0.05). In conclusion, clopidogrel reduces endothelial cell sloughing and increases expression of endothelial progenitor cell phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate kinase in the peripheral blood of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This represents a novel mechanism by which this agent can promote improved vascular function, protect against oxidative stress, inhibit apoptosis, and attenuate vascular damage in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Comments

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.11.034