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Gout is the most frequent form of inflammatory arthritis in the world. Its prevalence is particularly elevated in specific geographical areas such as in the Oceania/Pacific region and is rising in the US, Europe, and Asia. Gout is a severe and painful disease, in which co-morbidities are responsible for a significant reduction in life expectancy. However, gout patients remain ostracized because the disease is still considered “self-inflicted”, as a result of unhealthy lifestyle and excessive food and alcohol intake. While the etiology of gout flares is clearly associated with the presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposits, several major questions remain unanswered, such as the relationships between diet, hyperuricemia and gout flares or the mechanisms by which urate induces inflammation. Recent advances have identified gene variants associated with gout incidence. Nevertheless, genetic origins of gout combined to diet-related possible uric acid overproduction account for the symptoms in only a minor portion of patients. Hence, additional factors must be at play. Here, we review the impact of epigenetic mechanisms in which nutrients (such as ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) and/or dietary-derived metabolites (like urate) trigger anti/pro-inflammatory responses that may participate in gout pathogenesis and severity. We propose that simple dietary regimens may be beneficial to complement therapeutic management or contribute to the prevention of flares in gout patients.


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