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In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification impacts that will be considered include several measures of tree and stand growth rates, foliar chemistry, bolewood chemistry, and herbaceous species composition and diversity. These studies enhance our understanding of the inter-relationships of changes in soil conditions caused by the acidification treatment and the condition of forest vegetation.


This article first appeared in the 2006, MB Adams, DR DeWalle, and J Hom, editors. The Fernow Watershed Acidification Study, Series: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 11, New York, NY: Springer, and is reprinted with permission. The final publication is available at