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As part of the famous “Great Game” between the Russian and British Empires in Central Asia, Turkmenistan was the last colonial prize of the Russian tsars; its delineation from Afghanistan was completed only in the 1890s. The Russian Empire’s Transcaspian Region (Zakaspiiskaya Oblast) was roughly what Turkmenistan is today; its neighbors were the semi-independent emirate of Bokhara to the east and khanate of Khiva to the north, both remnants of medieval Muslim empires.

This book combines the results of basic scientific research in biogeography and ecology; its purpose is to give a fairly comprehensive account of the nature of Turkmenistan. It is also the authors’ common desire to see its human population living in balance with this diverse nature, and the state of Turkmenistan being peaceful and prosperous


Biogeography and Ecology of Turkmenistan is available at

Copyright © 1994 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrech. Originally published by Kluwer Academic Publishers in 1994. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.

doi: 10.1007/978-94-011-1116-4_1