This study examined the relationship between universal-diverse orientation (UDO), a relatively new concept associated with multicultural awareness that is related to the recognition and acceptance of both similarities and differences among people (Miville et al., 1999), and personality. Participants were one hundred and one college students who completed a measure of UDO, the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale (M-GUDS; Miville et al., 1999), and a well-established measure of normal personality, the California Psychological Inventory (CPI; Gough, 1987). Researchers hypothesized that significant relationships would exist between UDO and healthy attributes of personality. Initial results supported this hypothesis; however, post hoc analyses indicated that the demographic variables age and education were also significantly correlated with UDO, and these appear to moderate the relationship between UDO personality. Practical applications and implications for future research are offered. Vontress (1988, 1996) suggested that via the confluence of five cultures (i.e., universal, ecological, national, regional, racioethnic), human development produces includes idiographic differences as well as communal traits that transcend individual differences. Vontress went on to propose that an awareness of and appreciation for the differences and commonalities between and among cultures is important for effective human interaction. Miville et al. (1999) put a finer point on this idea. They believe that attentiveness toward and acceptance of group differences is critical for those who work with diverse persons from a variety of social-cultural backgrounds. Influenced by this Vontress, Miville et al. introduced the universal-diverse orientation (UDO) as ―an attitude toward all other persons that is inclusive yet differentiating in that similarities and differences are both recognized and accepted; the shared experience of being human results in a sense of connectedness with people and is associated with a plurality or diversity of interactions with others‖ (p. 292). Miville et al. (1999) reported that UDO is theoretically associated with personality functioning and wellness. Initial evidence has surfaced to support this link. For example, preliminary data indicate that UDO is related to attentiveness and responsiveness to others, openness to new experiences, interest and commitment to social and cultural activities of diverse people, and the ability to appreciate the impact of one's own and others' diversity (Constantine, et al., 2001; Thompson, Brossart, Carlozzi, & Miville, 2002; Yeh & Arora, 2003). Further, Miville et al. (1999) reported links between UDO and personality variables such as attitudes towards gender, well-being, mental health, autonomy, independence, and empathy--features that seem to be central to effectiveness in social interaction, such as is needed among counselors. Additionally, the UDO was negatively related to ratings of homophobia and dogmatism. Later, Strauss and Connerley (2003) and Thompson et al. (2002) added to the investigation of this hypothesized link. Strauss and Connerley found that the personality variables agreeableness (selflessness, tolerance, helpfulness) and openness to experience were positively and significantly associated with UDO. Thompson et al. also reported that UDO was linked to openness to experience. Together, these studies provide initial support for the Miville et al personality and UDO hypotheses. However, these studies used narrowly defined personality variables. Therefore, additional research is needed to expand and develops the UDO literature base. Because the UDO provides a framework for understanding and appreciating the foundational similarities and differences central to effective multicultural counseling, additional research is needed to evaluate this important construct. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to build upon and extend the research investigating the theorized relationship between UDO and personality. Specifically, we will examine the relationship between UDO, as measured by the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale (M-GUDS; Miville et al., 1999) and selected variables from a well-established measure of personality traits, the California Personality Inventory (Gough, 1996) in a sample of students enrolled in courses offered in two university departments: counseling and mental health services, and psychology.
Roberts, J. A., Laux, J. M., & Burck, A. M. (2009). Exploring the relationship between universal-diverse orientation and personality. Journal of Counseling Practice. 1-7. Retrieved from http://www.ohiocounseling.org/Resources/Documents/JCP%20Archives%20PDF.pdf