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Supervision of offenders in the community remains a critical component of the correctional processes in the United States. With almost six million offenders under correctional supervision in the community, there has been relatively little attention and few resources devoted to the style and quality of supervision received by these offenders. As a result of the lack of research regarding the style of probation and parole supervision, there is a need to identify and quantify styles of casework and surveillance supervision. This article describes a research project that identifies the key functions of parole and probation officers, reports self- and peer-rating on a casework to surveillance continuum, and establishes an instrument that can be used to create baseline information regarding how probation and parole officers spend their time, and whether the functions officers perform are casework, surveillance, or a balance of the two.


This is an Author’s Accepted Manuscript of an article published in Seiter, Richard P., and Angela D. West. "Supervision styles in probation and parole: an analysis of activities." Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 38.2 (2003): 57-75 as published in the JOURNAL OF OFFENDER REHABILITATION 2003 copyright Taylor & Francis, available online at: