Probiotics have been used as alternative prevention and therapy modalities in intestinal inflammatory disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Pathophysiology of IBD and NEC includes the production of diverse lipid mediators, including platelet-activating factor (PAF) that mediate inflammatory responses in the disease. PAF is known to activate NF-kB, however, the mechanisms of PAF-induced inflammation are not fully defined. We have recently described a novel PAF-triggered pathway of NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), requiring the pivotal role of the adaptor protein Bcl10 and its interactions with CARMA3 and MALT1. The current studies examined the potential role of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus in reversing the PAF-induced, Bcl10-dependent NF-kB activation and IL-8 production in IECs. PAF treatment (5 μM624 h) of NCM460 and Caco-2 cells significantly increased nuclear p65 NF-κB levels and IL-8 secretion (2-3-fold, P,0.05), compared to control, which were blocked by pretreatment of the cells for 6 h with L. acidophilus (LA) or its culture supernatant (CS), followed by continued treatments with PAF for 24 h. LA-CS also attenuated PAF-induced increase in Bcl10 mRNA and protein levels and Bcl10 promoter activity. LA-CS did not alter PAF-induced interaction of Bcl10 with CARMA3, but attenuated Bcl10 interaction with MALT1 and also PAF-induced ubiquitination of IKKγ. Efficacy of bacteria-free CS of LA in counteracting PAF-induced inflammatory cascade suggests that soluble factor(s) in the CS of LA mediate these effects. These results define a novel mechanism by which probiotics counteract PAF-induced inflammation in IECs.
Borthakur A, Bhattacharyya S, Kumar A, Anbazhagan AN, Tobacman JK, Dudeja PK (2013) Lactobacillus acidophilus Alleviates Platelet-Activating Factor-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells. PLoS ONE 8(10): e75664. pmid:24130731 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075664