Na-amino acid co-transporters (NaAAcT) are uniquely affected in rabbit intestinal villus cell brush border membrane (BBM) during chronic intestinal inflammation. Specifically, Na-alanine co-transport (ASCT1) is inhibited secondary to a reduction in the affinity of the co-transporter for alanine, whereas Na-glutamine co-transport (B0AT1) is inhibited secondary to a reduction in BBM co-transporter numbers. During chronic intestinal inflammation, there is abundant production of the potent oxidant peroxynitrite (OONO). However, whether OONO mediates the unique alteration in NaAAcT in intestinal epithelial cells during chronic intestinal inflammation is unknown. In this study, ASCT1 and B0AT1 were inhibited by OONO in vitro. The mechanism of inhibition of ASCT1 by OONO was secondary to a reduction in the affinity of the co-transporter for alanine, and secondary to a reduction in the number of co-transporters for B0AT1, which were further confirmed by Western blot analyses. In conclusion, peroxynitrite inhibited both BBM ASCT1 and B0AT1 in intestinal epithelial cells but by different mechanisms. These alterations in the villus cells are similar to those seen in the rabbit model of chronic enteritis. Therefore, this study indicates that peroxynitrite may mediate the inhibition of ASCT1 and B0AT1 during inflammation, when OONO levels are known to be elevated in the mucosa.
Arthur, S.; Manoharan, P.; Sundaram, S.; Rahman, M.M.; Palaniappan, B.; Sundaram, U. Unique Regulation of Enterocyte Brush Border Membrane Na-Glutamine and Na-Alanine Co-Transport by Peroxynitrite during Chronic Intestinal Inflammation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1504.