Morgan Ruley

Date of Award


Degree Name

Healthcare Administration


College of Business

Type of Degree


Document Type

Research Paper

First Advisor

Alberto Coustasse


Introduction: West Virginia’s opioid epidemic has been the cause of about 1,000 deaths each year. Opioid abuse has become an issue among pregnant mothers and has increased the effects of NAS in infants. The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the participation of prenatal opioid maintenance to determine if it has decreased the amount of treatment needed for NAS in infants in WV.

Methodology: The methodology for this study utilized a literature review and a semi-structured interview. It consisted of academic sources, five electronic databases, academic journals, and government websites. Thirty-seven sources were referenced for this literature review.

Results: The literature review analyzed opioid maintenance therapy during pregnancy and its effect on the severity of NAS. It was found that BMT had the most positive effect on NAS after birth. This review also reported a lack of availability for addicted pregnant women to enroll in maintenance programs and a high drop-out rate.

Discussion/Conclusion: Opioid maintenance therapy has permitted pregnant women to refrain from illicit drug use without experiencing withdrawal symptoms and allowed the opportunity for their infants to have better health after birth. The study reviewed limitations that included the lack of treatment accessibility and had retractions due to difficulty distinguishing between generic drug names, databases used, and publication bias. Practical implications included continual participation of opioid addicted pregnant women and further research of new pharmaceuticals.


Health services administration.

Health facilities -- Business management.

Opioid abuse -- Treatment -- West Virginia.