Date of Award


Degree Name

Educational Leadership


College of Education and Professional Development

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

J. William Douglas

Second Advisor

Ernest R. Goeres

Third Advisor

Helen Hazi

Fourth Advisor

Carl P. Bahneman

Fifth Advisor

John Andes


The purpose of this investigation was to identify and analyze trends in Title IX’s impact and sex rations of athletic coaches and administrators in AIAW Division I intercollegiate athletic programs. Institutions offering at least one Division I intercollegiate athletic program, as defined by the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW), were chosen as a population. The following problems were investigated for the institutions chosen.

  1. The number of women’s athletic activities in 1970-71, 1975-76 and 1980-81.
  2. The number and percent of women coaching women’s athletics in 1970-71, 1975-76, and 1980-81.
  3. The number and percent of women as athletic administrators in 1970-71, 1975-76 and 1980-81.
  4. The possible reasons for any observed changes.
  5. The effects of Title IX court cases on women’s athletics.

This study investigated the research problems using four formats. They were: 1) a search of AIAW records for women’s intercollegiate athletics, 2) a national survey of all AIAW Division I institutions, 3) personal interviews with executive officers at the AIAW National Office, and with delegates at the 1981 AIAW Delegate Assembly in Detroit, Michigan and 4) a review and abstract of all court cases of Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 as it relates to athletics. The first two investigative procedures sought to identify trends in sex ratio changes, which were addressed in problem 1, 2 and 3. The third procedure, the interviews, was to answer problem 4, the possible reasons for any observed changes. The fourth procedure, a Title IX compendium, was aimed at problem number 5.

Results of the investigation showed a large increase in the number of athletic activities offered for women throughout the decade. There were also increases in the number of women coaches and administrators for these programs. However, the increase in the number of men coaching and administering women’s programs was much more dramatic.

The percentages of male and female coaches for women’s intercollegiate athletics throughout the decade depicts the trend:

1970-71 1975-76 1980-81

Male Coaches 8.6% 24.7% 41.6%

Female Coaches 91.4% 75.3% 58.4%

The number of women coaching women’s teams continues to increase. However, there is a noticeable trend toward more men coaching. In fact in District 3 of the study, the West Coast, there are already more men coaching intercollegiate Division I athletic activities (39.1% women and 60.9% men) than women.

Implications of this study are that men are being selected to coach many of the new women’s teams. Several problems must be addressed: 1) role models, 2) experience as assistant coaches and 3) training for coaches.


The University of West Virginia College of Graduate Studies became the WV Graduate College in 1992 and was subsequently merged with Marshall University in 1997.


Coaches (Athletics).

Sports for women – Coaching.

Sex discrimination in sports.