Date of Award


Degree Name



W. Page Pitt School of Journalism and Mass Communication

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Corley Dennison

Second Advisor

Janet Dooley

Third Advisor

Cicero M. Fain

Fourth Advisor

Chris Swindell


This thesis explores the origins of modern-day racism and sexism by combining a meta-analysis with an in-depth historical examination of the Aunt Jemima and Betty Crocker campaigns. The ten studies used in the meta-analysis were selected and analyzed based on criteria developed from the research question and literature review. The researcher made three major conclusions based on the meta-analysis results: 1) It is not only important that minorities are shown in media images, but how they are shown; 2) stereotypes can sometimes mold viewpoints about the stereotyped member(s) of society; and 3) the consumer psyche provides further evidence that viewing stereotypes affects viewpoints. When comparing the meta-analysis results to the Aunt Jemima and Betty Crocker campaigns, the researcher found that the icons and their histories parallel America’s historic perpetuation of racist and sexist issues.


Stereotypes (Social psychology) in advertising.

Women in advertising.

Racism - In advertising.

Sexism - In advertising.

African American women in advertising.

Jemima, Aunt.

Crocker, Betty.