Date of Award


Degree Name

School Psychology


Graduate School of Education and Professional Development

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Fred Jay Krieg

Second Advisor

Stephen O’Keefe

Third Advisor

Sandra S. Stroebel

Fourth Advisor

Melinda K. Robinett


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Tier II student characteristics and outcomes on a standardized reading assessment. Ninety students who scored in the lowest third on a Virginia standardized reading test were placed into one of three instructional groups: 1) a control group consistent with instruction from previous years, 2) a “teacher selected” treatment group in which teachers determined students’ cognitive processing deficits and administered a chosen intervention, and 3) a “tested” treatment group in which students were administered the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) and assigned interventions based on the results. The mean scores in groups by students’ (a) previous retention status, (b) instructional group, (c) age, and (d) gender were examined. Results indicated that previous retention status significantly predicted test scores and that student age, gender, and instructional group were not significantly related to test scores. Furthermore, interaction effects between retention and instructional group were not found.


Educational tests and measurements - Case studies.

Educational evaluation - Case studies.