Date of Award


Degree Name



College of Liberal Arts

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Hyo-Chang Hong

Second Advisor

Jun Zhao

Third Advisor

Kelli Prejean


The purpose of this study is to examine elementary level textbooks (grades 2-4; Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing; The Trophies Collection) using Systemic Functional Linguistics as the theoretical framework to study the different types of lexical choice and grammatical options made in the textbooks. The two genres examined are science and narrative, which are significantly different from each other. Science texts are “information based,” and narrative texts, “story based.” It is very important for teachers to understand how the genres are different so that they can convey those differences to their students.

The two school genres, science and narrative, differ from each other in their lexicogrammatical features. These features can be analyzed and evaluated and then taught. An appraisal analysis identifies items that display the author’s attitude in the text, and a grammatical metaphor analysis identifies modes of expression displaying incongruency between the two levels of semantics and lexicogrammar. Evaluating appraisal items and understanding how grammatical metaphors are arranged within these texts can help differentiate some of the discourse semantic features of science or “informational” texts and narratives or “story” texts. The results of this analysis may help teachers during class instruction.



Linguistics in literature.

Linguistics - Textbooks.