Date of Award


Degree Name

Exercise Science


College of Health Professions

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Suzanne Konz

Second Advisor

Jana Hovland

Third Advisor

Rebecca Dondanville


Purpose of the Research: The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of negative energy balance in male and female collegiate soccer players who do not exhibit disordered eating. The study also looked at the prevalence of complications associated with disordered eating, injury and menstrual dysfunction to determine if these would be present in the participants in a negative or positive energy balance regardless of disordered eating status. A questionnaire will examine participants’ disordered eating risk, and a food and activity diary will examine energy balance. A third questionnaire regarding injury and menstrual history will determine their prevalence among the participants.

Scientific or Scholarly Rationale: Disordered eating is a serious condition that can adversely affect menstrual function in females and bone health in all athletes. Athletes who have inadequate caloric intake are at risk for serious injury. Some athletes, especially those in lean build sports, intentionally restrict their energy intake to maintain a lean physique. However, other athletes may be under-consuming calories unintentionally. Because soccer athletes require both endurance and power during practice and competition, this population’s needs represent those of many other sports.

Procedures to be Performed: After recruitment all participants completed the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and an injury history questionnaire at an informational meeting held by investigators. Female participants were also asked to complete a menstrual history questionnaire. At the informational meeting, participants received food and activity diary sheets, which the investigators used to find energy balance. Participants recorded food intake and all activities over a three-day period. A sample food diary and activity diary page was included with a sheet providing examples of serving sizes and an internet source to help participants measure and record his/her food diary and activity diary. At the completion of the three days recording, participants sealed log sheets in an envelope that they signed with his/her participant number to ensure no others had access to their information other than investigators. Participants returned all food and activity diary materials to the team athletic trainer who forwarded it to the investigators for data analysis.

A Description of the Procedures Being Performed Already for Diagnostic or Treatment Purposes: There are no diagnostic or treatment procedures currently being used on the participants.

Risks and Potential Benefits of the Research: Risks The psychological risks involved in this study include the possibility of creating mild distress due to the topic sensitivity, as some may feel uncomfortable discussing their weight and eating habits. Investigators minimized this risk by protecting the privacy and anonymity of each participant by creating a coding system to prevent sensitive material from appearing with identifying information. The participants were encouraged to participate only if they felt comfortable completing the EAT-26, food and activity diaries, and injury and menstrual history questionnaires. Participation was voluntary. If at any time they wished to remove themselves from the study, they could without repercussions. Participants were encouraged to contact the investigators if they found themselves in any distress over the subject material. Aside from their normal participation in physical activity (playing soccer, lifting weights, etc.) there were no additional physical risks. The participants’ risk for physical harm does not increase due to participation in the study.

Benefits: Benefits of participation in the study include awareness of possible energy inadequacies in soccer athletes and greater awareness of the consequences of these inadequacies. Participation will also contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the relationship between energy balance and disordered eating and the prevalence of injury and menstrual dysfunction in these athletes.


Kinesiology - Research.

Athletes - Nutrition.