Date of Award


Degree Name

School Psychology


Graduate School of Education and Professional Development

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Fred Jay Krieg

Second Advisor

Stephen L. O’Keefe

Third Advisor

Sandra S. Stroebel


This study examined the perceptions of principals regarding academic, social, or emotional outcomes and alternative interventions to grade retention. The principals were asked to respond to the survey on grade retention as an intervention. Following the initial survey, an article entitled, “Grade Retention and Promotion” (Jimerson, Graydon, Pletcher, Schnurr, Kundert, & Nickerson, 2006) was given for review and post-survey was administered.

The results of this study revealed that principals’ attitudes changed about using retention as an intervention in response to reading the article. These research results indicated that when research-based information on the negative effects of retention was presented, there was a significant change in principals’ attitude as measured by these surveys. The effects on change in attitude compared to actual change in behavior should be studied.


Grade repetition.

School principals.