Date of Award


Degree Name

Curriculum and Instruction


College of Education

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

William Fred Pauley

Second Advisor

Sarah L. Brown

Third Advisor

Michael C. Cunningham

Fourth Advisor

Lisa A. Heaton


This study, based on Bandura’s social cognitive theory, explored the two dimensions of teacher efficacy among reading program types (Harcourt; Houghton Mifflin; MacMillan McGraw Hill; Pearson Scott Foresman; and, Other) and selected demographic factors (school enrollment size; student ethnicity; school district of urban, rural, and suburban; student socioeconomic status; teacher’s level of education; teacher’s years of experience; and, teacher certification of highly qualified or not-highly qualified). Utilizing Gibson and Dembo’s Teacher Efficacy Scale (TES) combined with an author-created selected demographic questionnaire, a sample of 364 elementary teachers participated representing a population of 6,204 elementary teachers of reading. A one-way ANOVA revealed that there was no significant difference of general teaching efficacy among the reading program types, no significant difference of personal teaching efficacy among the reading program types, but found differences of personal teaching efficacy between Harcourt and MacMillan McGraw Hill reading programs. A lack of significance was found between general teaching efficacy and all selected demographic factors and between personal teaching efficacy and all selected demographic factors. Conclusions suggest that teaching efficacy among the reading program types and the selected demographics are more similar than different. Implications for practical application include continuation of National Reading Panel’s (2000) recommendations, Reading First/ K-3 Tiered Reading Model essential reading elements, and fidelity to the core reading program. Theoretical implications include review and synthesis of teacher efficacy research for critical elements of motivation. Suggestions for universities to market opportunities for advanced degrees in reading and utilization of teacher efficacy research in courses were encouraged.


Teacher effectiveness.

Reading (Primary) - Curricula.

Elementary schools - West Virginia.