Date of Award


Degree Name

School Psychology


Graduate School of Education and Professional Development

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Sandra S. Stroebel

Second Advisor

Ray Haning

Third Advisor

Conrae Lucas-Adkins


The purpose of this study was to examine general teacher efficacy beliefs towards English Language Learners by school-level in a college-town in West Virginia. A modified version of Gibson and Dembo’s Teacher Efficacy Scale (TES) and an author-developed demographic questionnaire were used. This scale has been well-researched, but not in the area of ELL, and so this study was the first to modify the scale to reflect that population. Participants included 40 teachers. Factor analysis revealed appropriate loadings by dimension for the modified TES (22-items), with the exclusion of 2 items. Next, a Pearson correlation showed significant relationships for living abroad and additional certifications on total teacher efficacy. Similarly, there were significant relationships between total years teaching and number of additional certifications on personal efficacy. Finally, an ANOVA revealed significant differences by level for overall and personal efficacy, with teachers in lower levels indicating higher levels of efficacy.


Teachers -- Attitudes.

English language -- Study and teaching.