Centruroides edwardsii (Gervais, 1843) comb. nov. is restored as a valid species, and a male neotype from Riohacha, La Guajira Department, Colombia is herein designated; this species ranges from Mexico through Colombia, but there are no reliable records from Guatemala, Belize, and Panama; introduced populations also occur in Cuba (West Indies) and Senegal (Africa). We regard the following species as its junior synonyms: Scorpio (Atreus) degeerii Gervais, 1844, Centrurus gambiensis Karsch, 1879, Centruroides margaritatus septentrionalis Hoffmann, 1932, and Rhopalurus danieli Prado et Rios-Patiño, 1940. We also consider Centruroides margaritatus morenoi Mello-Leitão, 1945 as a junior synonym of Centruroides margaritatus (Gervais, 1841). After these taxonomic changes, the confirmed distribution of C. margaritatus includes northwestern South America (Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia), and the West Indies (introduced in Cuba and Jamaica).