Test–retest reliability of cardinal plane isokinetic hip torque and EMG

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The objective of the present study was to establish test–retest reliability of isokinetic hip torque and prime mover electromyogram (EMG) through the three cardinal planes of motion. Thirteen healthy young adults participated in two experimental sessions, separated by approximately one week. During each session, isokinetic hip torque was evaluated on the Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer at a velocity of 60 deg/s. Subjects performed three maximal-effort concentric and eccentric contractions, separately, for right and left hip abduction/adduction, flexion/extension, and internal/external rotation. Surface EMGs were sampled from the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, adductor, medial and lateral hamstring, and rectus femoris muscles during all contractions. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC – 2,1) and standard errors of measurement (SEM) were calculated for peak torque for each movement direction and contraction mode, while ICCs were only computed for the EMG data. Motions that demonstrated high torque reliability included concentric hip abduction (right and left), flexion (right and left), extension (right) and internal rotation (right and left), and eccentric hip abduction (left), adduction (left), flexion (right), and extension (right and left) (ICC range = 0.81–0.91). Motions with moderate torque reliability included concentric hip adduction (right), extension (left), internal rotation (left), and external rotation (right), and eccentric hip abduction and adduction (right), flexion (left), internal rotation (right and left), and external rotation (right and left) (ICC range = 0.49–0.79). The majority of the EMG sampled muscles (n = 12 and n = 11 for concentric and eccentric contractions, respectively) demonstrated high reliability (ICC = 0.81–0.95). Instances of low, or unacceptable, EMG reliability values occurred for the medial hamstring muscle of the left leg (both contraction modes) and the adductor muscle of the right leg during eccentric internal rotation. The major finding revealed high and moderate levels of between-day reliability of isokinetic hip peak torque and prime mover EMG. It is recommended that the day-to-day variability estimates concomitant with acceptable levels of reliability be considered when attempting to objectify intervention effects on hip muscle performance.


The version of record is available from the publisher at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2008.07.005. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier. All rights reserved.