Document Type


Publication Date

Fall 2011


Although the term “leadership” did not appear until approximately the 1850s, leadership can be viewed as an ancient art (Bass, 1990). However, it was not until 1976 that the American College Personnel Association (ACPA) Commission IV developed a leadership task force to investigate leadership programs in higher education and clearly defined the differences between leadership development, leadership training, and leadership education (Roberts & Ullom, 1990). The field of leadership progressed over the years by examining various components such as trait theory, behavioral theories, situational theories, and, most recently, leadership identity development theories. Since then, information regarding definitions of leadership, descriptions of leadership theories and models, the impact of leadership development on students, and how leadership styles vary based on ethnicity and sex have become prevalent in the literature.


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