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The Na/K-ATPase has been extensively studied, but it is only recently that its role as a scaffolding and signaling protein has been identified. It has been identified that cardiotonic steroids (CTS) such as digitalis mediate signal transduction through the Na/K-ATPase in a process found to result in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As these ROS also appear capable of initiating this signal cascade, a feed forward amplification process has been postulated and subsequently implicated in some disease pathways including uremic cardiomyopathy.


The copy of record is available from the publisher at Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license