This paper considers the denial of health insurance benefits based on a participant's high-risk behaviors such as self-inflicted injuries. In many instances, healthcare benefits can be denied if patients are injured while engaging in criminal activities, from a self-infliction, and from injuries relating to the consumption of alcohol. With increases in healthcare expenditures and government regulation, the necessity for benefit reductions is directed at individuals engaging in high-risk behaviors. The belief is that high-risk behaviors can be modified by individuals. Unfortunately, modification of behaviors may not be available to everyone.
Robertson, B. M., McKinney R. E., Jr., Shao, L. P. (2017). Self-Inflicted Injuries: Designation for Risk Assessment or Cost Avoidance. Journal of International Finance and Economics 17(3): 37-40.