Comparison of pharmaceutical calculations learning outcomes achieved within a traditional lecture or flipped classroom andragogy.
Objective. To compare learning outcomes achieved from a pharmaceutical calculations course taught in a traditional lecture (lecture model) and a flipped classroom (flipped model). Methods. Students were randomly assigned to the lecture model and the flipped model. Course instructors, content, assessments, and instructional time for both models were equivalent. Overall group performance and pass rates on a standardized assessment (Pcalc OSCE) were compared at six weeks and at six months post-course completion. Results. Student mean exam scores in the flipped model were higher than those in the lecture model at six weeks and six months later. Significantly more students passed the OSCE the first time in the flipped model at six weeks; however, this effect was not maintained at six months. Conclusion. Within a 6 week course of study, use of a flipped classroom improves student pharmacy calculation skill achievement relative to a traditional lecture andragogy. Further study is needed to determine if the effect is maintained over time.
Anderson HG, Frazier L, Anderson SL, Stanton R, Gillette C, Broedel-Zaugg K, Yingling K. Comparison of pharmaceutical calculations learning outcomes achieved within a traditional lecture or flipped classroom andragogy. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2017 May 1;81(4).