Inhibitory Effects of the Four Main Theaflavin Derivatives Found in Black Tea on Ovarian Cancer Cells
BACKGROUND: Some polyphenols induce apoptosis and inhibit angiogenesis. Consumption of black tea, rich in polyphenols, has been found to reduce ovarian cancer risk. Theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2a), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2b) and theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate (TF3) are four main theaflavin derivatives found in black tea.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation assay, Hoechst 33342 staining assay, Caspase-Glo Assay, western blot, human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation assay and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed.
RESULTS: All four theaflavin derivatives reduced viability of ovarian cancer cells at lower concentrations than with normal ovarian cells. TF1 mainly mediated apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway, while the others via the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. TF1 inhibited tube formation via reducing VEGF secretion in a hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-independent manner, while the others in a HIF1α-dependent way.
CONCLUSION: All four theaflavin derivatives inhibited ovarian cancer cells. Some of the effects and mechanisms of TF1 are different from those of the other three theaflavin derivatives.
Gao Y, Rankin GO, Tu Y, Chen YC. Inhibitory Effects of the Four Main Theaflavin Derivatives Found in Black Tea on Ovarian Cancer Cells. Anticancer Research. 2016;36:643-651.