Date of Award


Degree Name

Political Science


College of Liberal Arts

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Marybeth Beller

Second Advisor

C. Damien Arthur

Third Advisor

George Davis


The United States Senate as the upper chamber of the United States Congress possesses great power and responsibility. The way that the 100 men and women who make up the chamber vote has long been of importance to those of us in the field of political science. This paper will look at influences that affect a senator’s decision to vote against leadership. The research will test these influences simultaneously in order to find the degrees of influence each has. The research will focus on the Senate from 1994 – 2008, when the Gingrich senators led to an increasingly polarized body but Citizens United had not yet changed the rules of campaigning.


United States. Congress. Senate.

United States. Congress. Senate -- Voting.

Political parties -- United States.