Date of Award


Degree Name

Sports Administration


College of Health Professions

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Dr. Jennifer Y. Mak, Committee Chairperson

Second Advisor

Mr. Lei Ouyang

Third Advisor

Dr. Bennie Eng


In today’s intense marketing environment, the use of celebrity endorsers in advertising is a popular strategy to promote products over the competitors. Prior research has studied that the endorser-product congruence (Kamins & Gupta, 1994; Till & Busler, 2000), endorser-consumer congruence (Choi & Rifon, 2012; Hosany & Martin, 2012; Sirgy, 1982; 1985), and endorser credibility (Lee & Koo, 2015; McCracken, 1989; Ohanian, 1990; 1991) can influence consumers’ responses, such as attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. The high degree of congruence between celebrity image and product leads more positive consumers’ attitude toward ad, brand, and purchase intention than a low degree. Also, if the consumers perceive themselves (self-ideal image) to match as much or more to the celebrity endorser, the perception of credibility will lead to more positive attitude toward their evaluations of product than consumers who do not. Yet, little is known about when an individual consumes a brand, which one is the most effective factor to build a strong linkage between the brand and consumer. The purpose of this study is to understand the most effective factors that influence consumers’ evaluation of brands, and how consumers perceive athlete celebrity endorsements differently based on demographic variables. Results suggest that the degree of congruence between celebrity and product has the potential to be a more important factor than others in advertising strategy. Implications for marketers and recommendations for further studies are discussed.


Communication in marketing.

Consumers -- Attitudes.