Date of Award


Degree Name

School Psychology


College of Education and Professional Development

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Dr. Conrae Lucas-Adkins, Committee Chairperson

Second Advisor

Dr. Lanai Jennings

Third Advisor

Dr. Sandra Stroebel

Fourth Advisor

Mrs. Amy Saunders


Children who have been prenatally exposed to drugs are at higher risk of experiencing academic and behavioral difficulties as they become students. Current research is limited on the specific long-term social-emotional, behavioral, and cognitive effects for school-aged children. As these children advance into the schools, they need knowledgeable school professionals and evidence-based interventions that will support their academic and behavioral well-being. The purpose of the current investigation served to gather information regarding school professionals’ experiences, knowledge, and self-efficacy related to prenatal substance exposure of students. The results from the survey indicated school professionals are reporting having general knowledge of facets of prenatal substance exposure. However, despite this knowledge, the majority of school professionals reported low self-efficacy on all items. Additionally, there was no significant relationship between school professionals’ years of experience and self-efficacy ratings. Lastly, school professionals are requesting training regarding the global topic of prenatal substance exposure to increase current knowledge and feelings of self-efficacy. The results of this survey can serve as a guide for future training based on participant responses.


Mothers -- Drug use -- United States.

Children of prenatal substance abuse -- Education -- United States.

School psychology.