Date of Award


Degree Name

Curriculum and Instruction


College of Education

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Dr. Edna Meisel, Committee Chairperson

Second Advisor

Dr. Elizabeth Campbell

Third Advisor

Dr. Steven L. Paine


Mathematical proficiency during the early years is directly linked to later success in life, both regarding academics and economics. First grade educators must have the knowledge and skills to integrate the West Virginia Mathematical Habits of Mind (WV MHM) into their existing classroom instructional practices to help establish strong foundations for mathematical learning and thinking early on in children’s lives. This study investigated first grade educators’ perceptions of their confidence with integration of the WV MHM into their classroom instructional practices. Barriers to and supports for implementation, as well as educator demographics, were examined to determine any effect they may possibly have on educators’ confidence with integration of the WV MHM. Two hundred twenty one surveys were sent to the first grade educators in seven West Virginia Counties (Fayette, Greenbrier, Kanawha, Nicholas, Putnam, Roane, and Wood). Survey results yielded statistical significance across Likert scale frequencies for 26 of 28 subcomponents of the WV MHM, as well as significance across targeted barriers to and supports for implementation of the WV MHM. Demographic areas, including years of teacher experience in first grade and the amount of clock hours of professional development that focused on early mathematics over the past two years, were also found to have statistical significance. Implications that include increased professional development based on the WV MHM for early and elementary educators, as well as a continued focus on the state’s comprehensive focus on pre-k through grade five programming and supports, are provided. Recommendations for future research studies are also provided that expand the scope and population of the study through various methods.


Mathematics -- Study and teaching (Elementary) -- West Virginia.

Mathematics teachers -- Training of -- West Virginia.

Thought and thinking -- Study and teaching.