Date of Award


Degree Name

Health and Physical Education


College of Science

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

R. Daniel Martin

Second Advisor

Gary MacIlvain

Third Advisor

Thomas Jeffrey Chandler

Fourth Advisor

Leonard J. Deutsch


Cryotherapy is an important component in the management and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries that occur due to sports participation. Cryotherapy is described as the "therapeutic application of any substance to the body which results in the withdrawal of heat from the body" (Tsang, 1997). This cold modality is used initially when caring for injuries that are acute or chronic. The main reason for using cryotherapy in acute injury management is to lower the temperature of the injured tissue, which reduces the metabolic rate and helps the tissue to survive the period of hypoxia following an injury (Merrick, 1993). The effects of cryotherapy include pain relief, reduction of muscle spasm, and a decrease in cellular metabolism. This cooling will also decrease nerve conduction velocity, cause joint stiffness, and can also prolong a muscle's action potential (Evans, 1995).


Sports injuries.

Cold – Therapeutic use.

Physical education and training.