Date of Award


Degree Name

Biological Sciences


College of Science

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Dr. Donald Tarter

Second Advisor

Leonard J. Deutsch


The ecological life history of a population of Caenis amica Hagen from the Green Bottom Wildlife Management Area was studied from November 1996 to November 1997. Water quality data and 2,505 larvae were collected from the newly mitigated area of Green Bottom Swamp. Total body lengths of larvae were measured using a computer-digitizing program. These results indicated a bivoltine life cycle. Most larvae were found in the spring and summer months of April, June, and July. The highest peak of larvae (1,035) occurred in July. The pH values ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 with a mean of 7.6. Temperatures ranged from 2.0 to 25.7°C in February and July, respectively. Head width averages of the larvae were used to determine percent growth for each month. The greatest amount of growth (67.5%) occurred between March and April. This growth coincided with the first emergence at the end of April. A second growth period (37.2%) occurred between July and August. Larvae consumed mainly plant detritus. At least 50 percent detritus was present throughout the year. Plant detritus made up the highest percentage (90%) in the spring (April). Filamentous algae and diatoms were also present. Low pH tolerance of C. amica larva was determined in a 96 hr. acute static bioassay. The straight line graphical interpolation method gave a value of 4.3 and the linear regression value was 5.2. Using the linear regression value of 5.2, a 60 percent mortality rate was determined after an additional 96 hours. Egg counts of C. amica ranged from 325 to 690 eggs per individual female; the average number of eggs per female was 423. The fecundity-length regression equation was y = 78.1 + 85.8x (r = 0.657). Adults emerged from April 30, 1997 to September 11, 1997. There were two emergence peaks, April 30 (1,418 adults) and June 1 (1,833 adults). A chi-square test showed a highly significant difference from the 1:1 sex ratio at 0.05 confidence level.


Mayflies – Ecology – Cabell County (W. Va.).