Date of Award


Degree Name

School Psychology


Graduate School of Education and Professional Development

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Sandra S. Stroebel

Second Advisor

Fred Jay Krieg

Third Advisor

Stephen O’Keefe


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of individual reading instruction on reading comprehension gains at the 2010 Marshall University Graduate College Summer Enrichment Program. DIBELS Retell Fluency scores were utilized to measure the effect of one-to-one tutoring across three variables: small-group reading instruction only versus small-group with individual instruction added, struggling versus non-struggling, and younger versus older readers. A 2 (group) x 2 (ability) x 2 (age)between-subjects ANCOVA with repeated-measures was calculated to examine the main and interaction effects of individual tutoring, reading ability, and age on Retell Fluency scores, covarying out the effect of hours of treatment. A significant difference occurred between the Retell Fluency measure of children who received small-group instruction only and those who received individual reading instruction in addition to small-group instruction. Findings of this program evaluation demonstrate the value of pull-out, individualized, reading interventions.