Date of Award


Degree Name

Biological Sciences


College of Science

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Thomas K. Pauley

Second Advisor

Frank Gilliam

Third Advisor

Michael Little


Calls of male anurans during breeding seasons are species-specific identification tools. However, males cease calling after any nearby disturbance, including those of researchers. I proposed a variation on current methods that attempts to reduce this lag in calling after researcher-created disturbance by utilizing the propensity for competition in male frogs. I surveyed 14 breeding sites in Cabell and Wayne counties during the 2010 and 2011 breeding seasons. First, I used traditional visual encounter surveys (VESs). After using automated recording devices to gather site-specific recordings of calls of all species present, I conducted secondary VESs while playing these playlists over a loudspeaker. I expected this would increase anuran detection rates, capture rates, and survey efficiency. Only Pseudacris c. crucifer showed a significant increase in detection and capture rates when surveyed using callbacks, which is likely due to aggressive call behavior. Survey efficiency comparison was dropped due to lack of calling activity.


Anura - Behavior.

Anura - Breeding.