Date of Award


Degree Name

Exercise Science


College of Health Professions

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Matthew Comeau

Second Advisor

Terry Shepherd

Third Advisor

William P. Marley


In the past, interest in the application of human performance and testing values has been limited to exercise professionals and those who participate in physical activity at high levels. One common method exercise physiologists employ to determine performance is the assessment of blood lactate concentration [La - ] through sampling. Blood lactate has been studied extensively; however, selection of an optimal sample site for drawing blood lactate is still an ongoing concern for exercise physiologists. Site selection can impact the values of blood [La - ] being reported, which can in turn impact the development of the training prescription. Studies that compare a proximal and distal sample site were few until (Comeau, Lawson, Graves, Church, & Adams, 2011) performed a study using common sampling practices to visualize the passive sink phenomenon in non-exercising upper extremity muscles after a bout of exhaustive lower extremity exercise. The purpose of this study is to determine if the passive sink phenomenon can be visualized in the lower extremity during upper extremity exercise. Seven college-aged males completed a 15∙W∙min -1 incremental exercise protocol at 60 rpm to volitional fatigue on an upper body ergometer. Blood [La - ] was measured from the finger and toe at rest immediately post-exercise and every five minutes thereafter for 30 minutes after the exercise bout. A two-way 2 x 7 (site x sample time) within- subjects repeated-measures ANOVA determined no significant interaction effect. A significant time main effect did exist with Wilks’ Lambda = .032 (F6, 7 = 35.114, p=0.000). Blood lactate levels should be assessed from samples taken from the limb proximal to the exercising extremity to negate the passive sink effect when establishing training protocols from blood [La - ].


Blood lactate.

Exercise physiologists.