Date of Award


Degree Name

School Psychology


Graduate School of Education and Professional Development

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Fred Jay Krieg

Second Advisor

Sandra S. Stroebel

Third Advisor

Stephen O’Keefe


This study examines the relationship between the thoughts and actions of principals regarding retention in some West Virginia and Ohio schools. This research is a follow-up to Grade Retention as Perceived by Principals, by Galford (2008). The number of students retained per year for the schools of principals that participated in Galford's 2008 study was examined for three school years before Galford's 2008 study and two school years after. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine if any changes occurred. A chi-square was used to analyze data: Year 3 as the expected rate and Year 4 as the observed rate. Results show no significant effect across the five years examined. An effect was observed for Year 4: nine of twenty-two schools that year reduced the number of students retained.


Grade repetition - West Virginia. Grade repetition - Ohio. School principals - West Virginia. School principals - Ohio.