Date of Award


Degree Name

Curriculum and Instruction


College of Education

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Calvin F. Meyer

Second Advisor

Teresa R. Eagle

Third Advisor

Lisa A. Heaton

Fourth Advisor

Rhonda S. Shepperd


Planning practices are necessary requirements for effective instruction. Their importance is illustrated in the guidelines produced by several national organizations such as The Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC), The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), and The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Planning time is considered important by teachers at the grassroots level in order for them to develop thought-provoking lessons that allow students to make connections and form meaning as well as to reflect on previous lessons in order to make improvements for subsequent lessons. Collaborative planning is also considered important; however, it usually occurs with respect to block schedules, inclusion of special education students in the regular classroom, and the middle school model of education. The question exists as to what impact planning practices may have on high school regular education Algebra 1 and Applied Math classrooms. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the amount of time a high school Applied Math or Algebra 1 teacher spends planning, individually or collaboratively, affects the frequency of utilization of practices recommended by the NCTM. The population was described as secondary (grades 9-12) Algebra 1, Applied Math 1, and Applied Math 2 teachers in the public schools in West Virginia. Data was collected using an instructional practices survey constructed by the researcher. This study utilized ANOVA tests and t-tests for independent samples to determine if differences existed in the mean frequency of use of NCTM recommended instructional practices based on length of planning time. Findings indicated that teachers who planned longer, both individually and collaboratively, had significantly higher mean frequency scores. Length of planning time also resulted in differences when the NCTM recommended practices were divided into five process standards. It can be concluded that longer planning times not only contribute to a higher mean frequency of NCTM recommended strategies but also to a larger variety of strategies as indicated by significant differences in the five NCTM process standards. It was also determined that statistically significant differences occurred in planning times and NCTM scores based on demographic variables.


Mathematics - Study and teaching - West Virginia.

Algebra - Study and teaching - West Virginia.

Applied mathematics - West Virginia.