Date of Award


Degree Name

Biological Sciences


College of Science

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Franklin Binder

Second Advisor

Ronald Gain

Third Advisor

Charles Somerville


Eighty gel formulations were prepared using five buffer systems (0.01M citrate, 0.02M citrate, 0.01M tartrate, 0.02M tartrate, and 0.01M citrate/0.01M tartrate), four hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations (0%, 0.3%, 0.9%, and 1.2%), and four nonoxynol-9 (N-9) concentrations (0%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2%). The eighty gel formulations were then tested for physio-chemical properties (viscosity and pH), antimicrobial effectiveness (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Assay) against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae, and finally, spermicidal effectiveness (Sander Cramer Assay). The gel formulation that contained the best combination of physio-chemical, antimicrobial, and spermicidal properties was a 0.01M citrate buffered hydrogel, which contained 0.9% H2O2 and 1.5% N-9. Similar data results were also obtained with 0.02M citrate buffered gels containing 0.9% and 1.2% H2O2 with 1.5% and 2% N-9. Future clinical patient trials will be performed on the 0.01M citrate/ 0.9% H2O2 / 1.5% N-9 hydrogel at the University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Sciences in Des Moines, Iowa.


Sexually transmitted diseases - Prevention - Research


Hydrogen peroxide


Spermicides - Research