Date of Award


Degree Name

School Psychology


Graduate School of Education and Professional Development

Type of Degree


Document Type


First Advisor

Sandra S. Stroebel

Second Advisor

Fred Krieg

Third Advisor

Stephen O’Keefe


The current study examined which type of aggression middle and high school females used most: indirect or direct aggression. Popularity (social standing) was also examined in order to help determine whether or not a female’s popularity was increased or decreased by which type of aggression, if any, she used the most. It was hypothesized that popular females used indirect aggression more than non-popular peers. Thirty participants were selected from grades seven through twelve at a rural combined middle/high school in Monongalia County, West Virginia. Participants were asked to nominate two popular and two unpopular females. Next, participants completed an aggression questionnaire (The Direct and Indirect Aggression Scales) for each participant. Data was analyzed with T-tests to compare indirect and direct aggression scores for popular and unpopular females. Results revealed that in middle and high school both popular and unpopular females used more indirect than direct aggression.


Students -- West Virginia -- Monongalia County.

Aggressiveness in adolescence.