Date of Award


Degree Name

Special Education


College of Education

Type of Degree


Document Type

Research Paper

First Advisor

Lori Howard


Today, more students with disabilities are being served in inclusive classrooms and are required to achieve the high expectations set by the 21st Century standards. Many are not being successful, due to the difficulty of differentiating between what is important and is not important in the social studies textbooks. Research suggests that graphic organizers can help facilitate learning through visual representations, but they are not being utilized to help students in the comprehension and achievement of the curriculum content. This study focused on the effectiveness of “concept/event maps and sequence chains.” These two types of graphic organizers were utilized during class discussions, reading, and homework assignments to aid in the comprehension of the eighth grade social studies content as determined by the achievement on posttest measures in four middle school classrooms in rural West Virginia.


CISP 615 Special Education Research


Special education teachers.

Students with disabilities.

Social sciences -- Textbooks.