Date of Award


Degree Name

Special Education


College of Education

Type of Degree


Document Type

Research Paper

First Advisor

Lori Howard


This purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the PIES mnemonic strategy on the word problem solving skills of middle school students in inclusive math classes. Participants in the study were 109 students in a rural middle school in a mid-Atlantic state. Seventy-five participants were normally achieving students, and 34 were students with disabilities (Other Health Impairment, Specific Learning Disability, and Emotional/Behavioral Disorders). A pretest consisting of 10 grade-level word problems covering concepts that had already been taught was administered. Students then learned the PIES mnemonic strategy (Picture, Information, Equation, Solution) and participated in five weeks of practice sessions. A posttest was administered, and mean pretest and posttest scores were compared using a paired-sample t-Test. There was a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores for both sixth grade (t (68) = 4.944, p


CISP 615 Special Education Research


Special education teachers.

Mathematics--Study and teaching.

Learning disabilities.