Stories in Bone Still Told: Digitization and Replication of the Clover Site, Fort Ancient Human Remains

Kristy D. Henson


Human skeletal analysis is a sensitive subject in North America. Laws and regulations make it difficult to use remains to characterize native populations. Recent technologies like three-dimensional (3D) scanning and 3D printing have the potential to solve this dilemma. I assessed this methodology by comparing processing time, accuracy and costs of a medical computer tomography (CT) scanners and an Artec Eva portable 3D surface scanner. Using both methodologies I digitized one individual uncovered during an archaeological excavation in Cabell County, West Virginia. Replicas were created on a ZPrinter 250 3D printer. I hypothesized that the Artec Eva will create digital replicas with < 5% error based on Buikstra & Ubelaker standard osteometric measurements. This was tested by comparison of measurements from the material and CT data. I also hypothesized that the ZPrinter will create replicas of < 5% error. Results show that larger bones recorded by the Artec Eva have < 5% error compared to the original specimen, while small, detailed images have > 5% error. CT images yielded < 5% error. The ZPrinter also yielded