Date of Award


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College of Science

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Document Type



The problem with West Virginia is that it is not controlled by West Virginians. For over a century coal operators, who do not make this state their home but rather the source of their income, have controlled the destiny of West Virginia and its people. The native mountaineers, unaware of the wealth beneath their feet, were either scattered throughout the state or became coal miners themselves. Since that time all West Virginians, not merely coal miners or former land owners, have been subjected to the will of out of state companies because they not only control the mines and the land but the state government, C. Frank Keeney experienced the exploitation and sought to bring West Virginia back under control of the people that lived there.


Keeney, C. Frank (Charles Franklin).

United Mine Workers of America - History.

Labor unions - West Virginia.

Coal miners - Labor Unions - West Virginia - History.

Labor disputes - West Virginia - History.