The genus Heterometrus is revised and a key is presented to all species except H. tristis. Subgenera Chersonesometrus Couzijn, 1978, Gigantometrus Couzijn, 1978, Javanimetrus Couzijn, 1981 and Srilankametrus Couzijn, 1981 are synonymized with the subgenus Heterometrus Ehrenberg, 1828. Seven new species of Heterometrus are described: H. beccaloniae sp. n., H. mysorensis sp. n., H. rolciki sp. n., and H. ubicki sp. n. from India, H. nepalensis sp. n., from Nepal, H. sejnai sp. n. from Thailand, and H. cimrmani sp. n. from Thailand and Vietnam. The following species and subspecies are synonymized: H. (Chersonesometrus) fastigiosus Couzijn, 1981 with H. bengalensis (C. L. Koch, 1841); H. (Srilankametrus) indus laevitensus Couzijn, 1981 with H. gravimanus (Pocock, 1894); H. liophysa madoerensis Kopstein, 1921 and H. laevifrons Roewer, 1943 with H. liophysa (Thorell, 1888); H. (H.) longimanus belitungensis Couzijn, 1981 and H. (H.) longimanus tarawakanensis Couzijn, 1981 with H. longimanus (Herbst, 1800); H. (Chersonesometrus) granulomanus Couzijn, 1981 with H. madraspatensis Pocock, 1900; Palamnaeus phipsoni collinus Pocock, 1900 with H. phipsoni (Pocock, 1893); H. (H.) malapuramensis Tikader & Bastawade, 1983 with H. scaber (Thorell, 1876); H. (Gigantometrus) swammerdami titanicus Couzijn, 1981 with H. swammerdami Simon, 1872; and H. (Chersonesometrus) pelekomanus Couzijn, 1981 with H. wroughtoni (Pocock, 1899). H. thorellii (Pocock, 1892) comb. n. is recognized as valid species. Lectotypes are designated for H. xanthopus (Pocock, 1897) and for H. bengalensis (C. L. Koch, 1841), which invalidate Couzijn’s (1981) neotype designation. H. bengalensis (C. L. Koch, 1841) is for the first time recorded from Orissa, H. fulvipes (C. L. Koch, 1837) from Mysore, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal, H. kanaraensis (Pocock, 1900) from Goa, H. phipsoni (Pocock, 1893) from Orissa, H. scaber (Thorell, 1876) from Mysore and Pondichery, H. swammerdami Simon, 1872 from Mysore, and H. wroughtoni (Pocock, 1899) from Mysore (all states of India).