The genera Baloorthochirus, Butheolus, Orthochiroides, Pakistanorthochirus, and Asian species of the genus Orthochirus are revised and keys are presented to all species of Butheolus and Orthochiroides, Asian species of Orthochirus, and to species of all related genera. Afghanorthochirus Lourenço & Vachon, 1997 is synonymized with Orthochirus Karsch, 1892; Nanobuthus Pocock, 1895 is synonymized with Butheolus Simon, 1882; and Pakistanorthochirus Lourenço, 1997 is synonymized with Baloorthochirus Kovařík, 1996. Orthochiroides socotrensis sp. n. from Socotra Island and eleven new species of Orthochirus are described: O. afghanus sp. n., O. heratensis sp. n., O. jalalabadensis sp. n. and O. samrchelsis sp. n. from Afghanistan; O. iranus sp. n., O. sobotniki sp. n., O. varius sp. n. and O. zagrosensis sp. n. from Iran; O. iraqus sp. n. from Iraq; O. gromovi sp. n. from Turkmenistan; and O. feti sp. n. from Uzbekistan. Orthochirus luteipes Roewer, 1943 is synonymized with Orthochirus flavescens (Pocock, 1897); Pakistanorthochirus weitschati Lourenço, 1997 is synonymized with Baloorthochirus becvari Kovařík, 1996; and Butheolus insularis Pocock, 1899 is moved to the genus Orthochiroides. Lectotypes are designated for Orthochirus bicolor (Pocock, 1897) and Orthochirus pallidus (Pocock, 1897). Baloorthochirus becvari Kovařík, 1996 is for the first time recorded from India; Orthochirus chiroides vachoni Kovařík, 1998, from Socotra Island. hochirus krishnai Tikader & Bastawade, 1983 from India is considered a nomen dubium.