Lectotypes are designated for Androctonus (Leiurus) leptochelys Ehrenberg, 1829, Androctonus (Leiurus) thebanus Ehrenberg, 1828 and Androctonus (Leiurus) macrocentrus Ehrenberg, 1828. In recent papers the latter two species have been regarded as synonyms of Buthacus leptochelys, however its type series is composed of seven specimens that in reality belong to three species. The type series of Androctonus leptochelys includes specimens belonging to Buthacus leptochelys and Buthacus spatzi (Birula, 1911), and the type series of Androctonus macrocentrus includes specimens belonging to Buthacus leptochelys and Buthacus tadmorensis (Simon, 1892). In order to preserve stability, I designate as the lectotype of A. leptochelys a specimen that does not cause changes in the taxonomic position of Buthacus leptochelys and its complex. Upon designation of the lectotype of A. macrocentrus (Fig. 8), it becomes a valid species Buthacus macrocentrus (Ehrenberg, 1828) stat. n. with the synonyms Buthus tadmorensis Simon, 1892, Buthus pietschmanni Penther, 1912 and Buthacus yotvatensis Levy, Amitai & Shulov, 1973. Buthacus mahraouii Lourenço, 2004 from Morocco is considered a nomen dubium because its description is confused and characters unclear, which precludes determination of whether it belongs to the Buthacus leptochelys complex or the Buthacus arenicola complex. Buthacus ehrenbergi sp. n. from Mauritania is described. This new species belongs in the Buthacus leptochelys complex and has tibial spurs moderate on legs IV and extremely reduced on legs III, which distinguishes it from the other two species of Buthacus known to occur in Mauritania. B. huberi Lourenço, 2001 has tibial spurs on legs III and IV reduced, and B. occidentalis Vachon, 1953 has them moderately well developed. A key to the species of the genus Buthacus is also presented.