The genus Hottentotta is revised and a key to the species is provided. Subgenera Balfourianus Vachon, 1979 and Deccanobuthus Lourenço, 2000 are synonymized with the subgenus Hottentotta Birula, 1908. Four new species of Hottentotta are described: H. finneganae sp. n. from Pakistan, H. jabalpurensis sp. n. from India (Madhya Pradesh), H. jalalabadensis sp. n. from Afghanistan, and H. stockwelli sp. n. from India (Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra). The following species and subspecies are synonymized: Buthotus alticola kabulensis (Vachon, 1958) with H. buchariensis (Birula, 1897) comb. n.; Hottentotta caboverdensis Lourenço & Ythier, 2006 with H. hottentotta (Fabricius, 1787); H. acostai Lourenço, 2004 with H. minax (L. Koch, 1875); H. (Deccanobuthus) geffardi Lourenço, 2000 with H. pachyurus (Pocock, 1897); Buthus hendersoni Pocock, 1900 with H. rugiscutis (Pocock, 1897); Buthus tamulus concanensis Pocock, 1900, Buthus tamulus gangeticus Pocock, 1900, Buthus tamulus gujaratensis Pocock, 1900 and Buthus tamulus sindicus Pocock, 1900 with H. tamulus (Fabricius, 1798). H. buchariensis (Birula, 1897) comb. n., H. gentili (Pallary, 1924) comb. n., H. penjabensis (Birula, 1897) comb. n., and H. salei (Vachon, 1980) comb. n. are recognized as valid species. Lectotypes are designated for Buthus alticola buchariensis Birula, 1897; Buthus (Hottentotta) franzwerneri Birula, 1914; Buthus hendersoni Pocock, 1900; Buthus jayakari Pocock, 1895; Buthus pachyurus Pocock, 1897; Buthus rugiscutis Pocock, 1897; Androctonus (Prionurus) scaber Ehrenberg, 1828; Buthus tamulus concanensis Pocock, 1900; Buthus tamulus gangeticus Pocock, 1900; Buthus tamulus gujaratensis Pocock, 1900; and Buthus tamulus sindicus Pocock, 1900. Neotypes are designated for Scorpio hottentotta Fabricius, 1787 and Scorpio tamulus Fabricius, 1798. H. buchariensis (Birula, 1897) comb. n. is for the first time recorded from Pakistan, and H. salei (Vachon, 1980) comb. n. from the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Buthus syrticus Borelli, 1914 from Syria is considered a nomen dubium.