Stockwell (1989), in an unpublished revision, suggested splitting the family Vaejovidae in two subfamilies, introducing also four tribes and four new genera. These results have not been reevaluated for 20 years. Here, we establish a new subfamily Smeringurinae, subfam. nov., with two tribes, four genera, and 40 species and subspecies. The subfamily Smeringurinae includes two tribes: Smeringurini, trib. nov. and Paravaejovini, trib. nov. The tribe Smeringurini includes three genera: Paruroctonus Werner, 1934; Smeringurus Haradon, 1983; and Vejovoidus Stahnke, 1974. The tribe Paravaejovini includes the genus Paravaejovis Williams, 1980. We restore from synonymy the subfamily Syntropinae Kraepelin, 1905, and significantly expand its scope to include two tribes, two subtribes, eight genera, and 75 species and subspecies. The subfamily Syntropinae includes two tribes: Stahnkeini Soleglad et Fet, 2006, and Syntropini Kraepelin, 1905. The tribe Stahnkeini includes four genera: Gertschius Graham et Soleglad, 2007; Serradigitus Stahnke, 1974; Stahnkeus Soleglad et Fet, 2006; and Wernerius, gen. nov. The tribe Syntropini includes two subtribes, Syntropina Kraepelin, 1905, and Thorelliina, subtrib. nov. The subtribe Syntropina includes two genera, Syntropis Kraepelin, 1900 and Hoffmannius, gen. nov. The subtribe Thorelliina includes two new genera, Thorellius, gen. nov. and Kochius, gen. nov. Four new genera accommodate species from the former “eusthenura,” “intrepidus,” “punctipalpi,” and “spicatus” groups of Vaejovis. One new species from Durango, Mexico is described, Kochius kovariki Soleglad et Fet, sp. nov. Thorellius cristimanus, stat. nov. and T. atrox, stat. nov. are elevated to species from subspecies level. Our results confirm, in part, the phylogeny proposed by Stockwell (1989), with its further splitting of the overly inflated genus Vaejovis. The remaining default nominotypic subfamily, Vaejovinae Thorell, 1876, still unrevised at this time, is reduced to 66 species and subspecies, grouped in four genera, Franckeus, Pseudouroctonus, Uroctonites, and Vaejovis (the latter being divided into the “mexicanus” and “nigrescens” groups). Phylogenetic relationships within subfamilies Smeringurinae, Syntropinae, and Vaejovinae are discussed. As a result of the current revision, the family Vaejovidae now includes three subfamilies, four tribes, two subtribes, and 15 genera, with a total of 181 species-group taxa.

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